We use modal verbs to express a necessity, a possibility or a volition (if you must do something, if we can do something or if we want to do something).
We also use modal verbs to do things like asking permission, making requests and offers and so forth.
The Italian modal verbs always precede the infinitive of another verb and indicate a mode
- voglio andare al supermercato (modal verb + infinitve + object)
- devo comprare la cioccolata (modal verb + infinitve + object)
- non posso aspettare (modal verb + infinitive )
What do they mean in English?
Dovere + infinitive: to must, to have to, I need to
- Devo andare in palestra – I must (need, have to) go to the gym
Dovere + object: to owe
- Ti devo 5 euro per la piazza – I owe you 5 euros for the pizza
Potere: to ask for permission or being allowed (or not allowed) to do something
- Posso uscire un momento? – Can I leave for a second?
- I bambini non posso guardare la tv di sera tardi – Children are not allowed to watch TV late
Potere does not express the ability to do something, like English. In Italian, is always the verb SAPERE that does it:
- so cantare – I can sing
- sai cucinare? – Can you cook?
- sapete parlare russo? – Can you guys speak Russian?
Volere: to want
- Voglio mangiare giapponese – I want to eat Japanese
- Voglio il shushi e la tempura – I want sushi and tempura
Modal verb and compound tenses
Conjugating modal verbs in the passato prossimo (and other compound tenses) needs a special construction.
Since each modal verbs is followed by an infinitive verb (Posso entrare? Voglio mangiare!), when it comes to conjugating the modal verb you always need to choose the correct auxiliary (essere or avere) of the infinitive verb following the modal verbs:
- Sono dovuta uscire – I had to leave
Uscire is a verb of motion that in compound tenses take essere as a helping verb (or auxiliary), for such reason the auxiliary of dovere is essere, in such case.
- Ho dovuto preparare la cena – I had to prepare the dinner
Preparare is a transitive verb taking avere as helping verb, for such reason the auxiliary of dovere is avere, in such case.
- Non ho potuto preparare la cena – I could not prepare the dinner
- Non sono potuta andare a pranzo – I could not go to the lunch
Note that if the auxiliary preceding the modal verb is essere, the modal verbs dovere, potere and volere agree with the gender and number of the subject.
- sono dovuta andare via – I had to leave
- ci siamo alzati tardi – we got up late
- non siamo potuti venire – we could not come